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Important Constitutional Amendments

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7th amendment

Reorganization of states on linguistic basis, Abolition of Class A, B, C and D states and Introduction of Union Territories

42nd amendment

1. Added three new words.
2. Added Fundamental Duties.
3. Made the President bound by the cabinet.
4. 323A and 323B.
5. Froze the seats in Lok sabha and State legislative assemblies.
6. Added three new directive principles.
7. Shifted five subjects from the state list to concurrent list -- (a) education, (b) forests, (c) weights and measures, (d) protection of wild animals and birds, and (e) administration of justice
8. Provided for creation of all-India judicial services

44th amendment

1. Constitutional protection to publication in newspaper of the proceedings of the Parliament and State Legislatures.
2. Restored the jurisdiction of High court and the Supreme Court in respect of judicial review and issue of writs.
3. Empowered president to send back advice of council of minister for reconsideration.
4. Fundamental Rights Guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during a national emergency. 

5. The Right to Property was deleted from the list of fundamental right. It is now only a legal right under the Constitution.
6. It restored the power of judicial review of election of president, governors and LS speaker

61st Amendment:

To reduce the voting age from 21 years to 18 years.

73rd and 74th amendment :

73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution have provide Constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). In India, the Panchayati Raj now functions as a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the basic units of local administration

86th Amendment:

Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years.

91st amendment:

Anti-defection law.

93rd amendment:

Provided for 27 percent reservation for OBCs in government as well as private higher educational institutions

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